mahara.php 48.9 KB
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<?php
/**
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 * This program is part of Mahara
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 *
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 *  This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
 *  it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
 *  the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
 *  (at your option) any later version.
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 *
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 *  This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 *  but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 *  MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
 *  GNU General Public License for more details.
 *
 *  You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 *  along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
 *  Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301 USA
 *
 * @package    mahara
 * @subpackage core
 * @author     Penny Leach <penny@catalyst.net.nz>
 * @license    http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html GNU GPL
 * @copyright  (C) 2006,2007 Catalyst IT Ltd http://catalyst.net.nz
 * @copyright  (C) portions from Moodle, (C) Martin Dougiamas http://dougiamas.com
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 */

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defined('INTERNAL') || die();
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/** 
 * work around silly php settings
 * and broken setup stuff about the install
 * and raise a warning/fail depending on severity
 */
function ensure_sanity() {

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    // PHP version
    if (version_compare(phpversion(), '5.1.0') < 0) {
        throw new ConfigSanityException(get_string('phpversion', 'error'));
    }

    // Various required extensions
    if (!extension_loaded('json')) {
        throw new ConfigSanityException(get_string('jsonextensionnotloaded', 'error'));
    }
    if (!extension_loaded('pgsql') && !extension_loaded('mysqli')) {
        throw new ConfigSanityException(get_string('dbextensionnotloaded', 'error'));
    }
    if (!extension_loaded('libxml')) {
        throw new ConfigSanityException(get_string('libxmlextensionnotloaded', 'error'));
    }
    if (!extension_loaded('gd')) {
        throw new ConfigSanityException(get_string('gdextensionnotloaded', 'error'));
    }
    if (!extension_loaded('session')) {
        throw new ConfigSanityException(get_string('sessionextensionnotloaded', 'error'));
    }

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    // Various optional extensions
    if (!extension_loaded('openssl')) {
        log_environ(get_string('opensslextensionnotloaded', 'error'));
    }
    if (!extension_loaded('curl')) {
        log_environ(get_string('curlextensionnotloaded', 'error'));
    }
    if (!extension_loaded('xmlrpc')) {
        log_environ(get_string('xmlrpcextensionnotloaded', 'error'));
    }

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    // register globals workaround
    if (ini_get_bool('register_globals')) {
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        log_environ(get_string('registerglobals', 'error'));
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        $massivearray = array_keys(array_merge($_POST, $_GET, $_COOKIE, $_SERVER, $_REQUEST, $_FILES));
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        foreach ($massivearray as $tounset) {
            unset($GLOBALS[$tounset]);
        }
    }

    // magic_quotes_gpc workaround
    if (ini_get_bool('magic_quotes_gpc')) {
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        log_environ(get_string('magicquotesgpc', 'error'));
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        function stripslashes_deep($value) {
            $value = is_array($value) ?
                array_map('stripslashes_deep', $value) :
                stripslashes($value);
            return $value;
        }
        $_POST = array_map('stripslashes_deep', $_POST);
        $_GET = array_map('stripslashes_deep', $_GET);
        $_COOKIE = array_map('stripslashes_deep', $_COOKIE);
        $_REQUEST = array_map('stripslashes_deep', $_REQUEST);

        $servervars = array('REQUEST_URI','QUERY_STRING','HTTP_REFERER','PATH_INFO','PHP_SELF','PATH_TRANSLATED');
        foreach ($servervars as $tocheck) {
            if (array_key_exists($tocheck,$_SERVER) && !empty($_SERVER[$tocheck])) {
                $_SERVER[$tocheck] = stripslashes($_SERVER[$tocheck]);
            }
        }
    }

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    if (ini_get_bool('magic_quotes_runtime')) {
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        // Turn of magic_quotes_runtime. Anyone with this on deserves a slap in the face
        set_magic_quotes_runtime(0);
        log_environ(get_string('magicquotesruntime', 'error'));
    }

    if (ini_get_bool('magic_quotes_sybase')) {
        // See above comment re. magic_quotes_runtime
        @ini_set('magic_quotes_sybase', 0);
        log_environ(get_string('magicquotessybase', 'error'));
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    }

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    if (ini_get_bool('safe_mode')) {
        // We don't run with safe mode
        throw new ConfigSanityException(get_string('safemodeon', 'error'));
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    }

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    // Other things that might be worth checking:
    //    memory limit
    //    file_uploads (off|on)
    //    upload_max_filesize
    //    allow_url_fopen (only if we use this)
    //

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    // dataroot inside document root.
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    if (strpos(get_config('dataroot'), get_config('docroot')) !== false) {
        throw new ConfigSanityException(get_string('datarootinsidedocroot', 'error'));
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    }

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    // dataroot not writable..
    if (!check_dir_exists(get_config('dataroot')) || !is_writable(get_config('dataroot'))) {
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        throw new ConfigSanityException(get_string('datarootnotwritable', 'error', get_config('dataroot')));
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    }
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    if (
        !check_dir_exists(get_config('dataroot') . 'smarty/compile') ||
        !check_dir_exists(get_config('dataroot') . 'smarty/cache') ||
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        !check_dir_exists(get_config('dataroot') . 'templates') ||
        !check_dir_exists(get_config('dataroot') . 'sessions')) {
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        throw new ConfigSanityException(get_string('couldnotmakedatadirectories', 'error'));
    }
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}

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/**
 * Check to see if the internal plugins are installed. Die if they are not.
 */
function ensure_internal_plugins_exist() {
    // Internal things installed
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    if (get_config('installed')) {
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        foreach (plugin_types() as $type) {
            if (!record_exists($type . '_installed', 'name', 'internal')) {
                throw new ConfigSanityException(get_string($type . 'notinstalled'));
            }
        }
    }
}

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function get_string($identifier, $section='mahara') {
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    $variables = func_get_args();
    if (count($variables) > 2) { // we have some stuff we need to sprintf
        array_shift($variables);
        array_shift($variables); //shift off the first two.
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    }
    else {
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        $variables = array();
    }
    
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    return get_string_location($identifier, $section, $variables);
}

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function get_helpfile($plugintype, $pluginname, $form, $element, $page=null, $section=null) {
    if ($langfile = get_helpfile_location($plugintype, $pluginname, $form, $element, $page, $section)) {
        return file_get_contents($langfile);
    }
    return false;
}

function get_helpfile_location($plugintype, $pluginname, $form, $element, $page=null, $section=null) {

    $location = get_config('docroot') ;
    $file = 'help/';

    if ($plugintype != 'core') {
        $location .= $plugintype . '/' . $pluginname . '/lang/';
    }
    else {
        $location .= 'lang/';
    }
    if ($page) {
        $page = str_replace('-', '/', $page);
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        if ($plugintype != 'core') {
            $file .=  'pages/' . $page . '.html';
        }
        else {
            $file .= 'pages/' . $pluginname . '/' . $page . '.html';
        } 
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    }
    else if ($section) {
        $file .= 'sections/' . $section . '.html';
    }
    else if (!empty($form) && !empty($element)) {
        $file .= 'forms/' . $form . '.' . $element . '.html';
    }
    else if (!empty($form) && empty($element)) {
        $file .= 'forms/' . $form . '.html';
    }
    else {
        return false;
    }

    // now we have to try and locate the help file
    $lang = current_language();
    if ($lang == 'en.utf8') {
        $trieden = true;
    }
    else {
        $trieden = false;
    }

    // try the current language
    $langfile = $location . $lang . '/' . $file;
    if (is_readable($langfile)) {
        return $langfile;
    }

    // if it's not found, try the parent language if there is one...
    if (empty($data) && empty($trieden)) {
        $langfile = $location . $lang . '/langconfig.php';
        if ($parentlang = get_string_from_file('parentlanguage', $langfile)) {
            if ($parentlang == 'en.utf8') {
                $trieden = true;
            }
            $langfile = $location . $parentlang . '/' . $file;
            if (is_readable($langfile)) {
                return $langfile;
            }
        }
    }

    // if it's STILL not found, and we haven't already tried english ...
    if (empty($data) && empty($trieden)) {
        $langfile = $location .  'en.utf8/' . $file;
        if (is_readable($langfile)) {
            return $langfile;
        }
    }
    return false;
}

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// get a string without sprintfing it.
function get_raw_string($identifier, $section='mahara') {
    // For a raw string we don't want to format any arguments using
    // sprintf, so the replace function passed to get_string_location
    // should just return the first argument and ignore the second.
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    return get_string_location($identifier, $section, array(), 
                               create_function('$string, $args','return $string;'));
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}


/**
 * This function gets a language string identified by $identifier from
 * an appropriate location, and formats the string and any arguments
 * in $variables using the function $replacefunc.
 *
 * @param string   $identifier
 * @param string   $section
 * @param array    $variables
 * @param function $replacefunc
 * @return string
 */
function get_string_location($identifier, $section, $variables, $replacefunc='format_langstring') {

    $langconfigstrs = array('parentlanguage', 'strftimedate', 'strftimedateshort', 'strftimedatetime',
                            'strftimedaydate', 'strftimedaydatetime', 'strftimedayshort', 'strftimedaytime',
                            'strftimemonthyear', 'strftimerecent', 'strftimerecentfull', 'strftimetime',
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                            'strfdaymonthyearshort', 'thislanguage');
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    if (in_array($identifier, $langconfigstrs)) {
        $section = 'langconfig';
    }

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    $lang = current_language();

    // Define the locations of language strings for this section
    $docroot = get_config('docroot');
    $locations = array();
    
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    if (false === strpos($section, '.')) {
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        $locations[] = $docroot . 'lang/';
    }
    else {
        $extras = plugin_types(); // more later..
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        foreach ($extras as $tocheck) {
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            if (strpos($section,$tocheck . '.') === 0) {
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                $pluginname = substr($section ,strlen($tocheck) + 1);
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                $locations[] = $docroot . $tocheck . '/' . $pluginname . '/lang/';
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            }
        }
    }
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    // First check all the normal locations for the string in the current language
    foreach ($locations as $location) {
        //if local directory not found, or particular string does not exist in local direcotry
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        $langfile = $location . $lang . '/' . $section . '.php';
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        if (is_readable($langfile)) {
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            if ($result = get_string_from_file($identifier, $langfile)) {
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                return $replacefunc($result, $variables);
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            }
        }
    }

    // If the preferred language was English (utf8) we can abort now
    // saving some checks beacuse it's the only "root" lang
    if ($lang == 'en.utf8') {
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        return '[[' . $identifier . '/' . $section . ']]';
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    }

    // Is a parent language defined?  If so, try to find this string in a parent language file
    foreach ($locations as $location) {
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        $langfile = $location . $lang . '/langconfig.php';
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        if (is_readable($langfile)) {
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            if ($parentlang = get_string_from_file('parentlanguage', $langfile)) {
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                $langfile = $location . $parentlang . '/' . $section . '.php';
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                if (is_readable($langfile)) {
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                    if ($result = get_string_from_file($identifier, $langfile)) {
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                        return $replacefunc($result, $variables);
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                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }

    /// Our only remaining option is to try English
    foreach ($locations as $location) {
        //if local_en not found, or string not found in local_en
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        $langfile = $location . 'en.utf8/' . $section . '.php';
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        if (is_readable($langfile)) {
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            if ($result = get_string_from_file($identifier, $langfile)) {
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                return $replacefunc($result, $variables);
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            }
        }
    }

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    return '[[' . $identifier . '/' . $section . ']]';  // Last resort
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}
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/**
 * Return a list of available languages
 *
 */
function get_languages() {
    $langs = array();
    $langbase = get_config('docroot') . 'lang/';
    if (!$langdir = opendir($langbase)) {
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        throw new SystemException('Unable to read language directory '.$langbase);
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    }
    while (false !== ($subdir = readdir($langdir))) {
        $langfile = $langbase . $subdir . '/langconfig.php';
        if ($subdir != "." && $subdir != ".." && is_readable($langfile)) {
            if ($langname = get_string_from_file('thislanguage',$langfile)) {
                $langs[$subdir] = $langname;
            }
        }
    }
    closedir($langdir);
    return $langs;
}

/**
 * Return a list of available themes
 * Need to add the theme names sometime; for now use get_string().
 *
 */
function get_themes() {
    $themes = array();
    $themebase = get_config('docroot') . 'theme/';
    if (!$themedir = opendir($themebase)) {
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        throw new SystemException('Unable to read theme directory '.$themebase);
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    }
    while (false !== ($subdir = readdir($themedir))) {
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        if ($subdir != "." && $subdir != ".." && is_dir($themebase . $subdir)) {
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            $themes[$subdir] = $subdir;

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            $config_path = $themebase . $subdir . '/config.php';
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            if (is_readable($config_path)) {
                require_once($config_path);
                if (isset($theme->name)) {
                    $themes[$subdir] = $theme->name;
                }
            }
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        }
    }
    closedir($themedir);
    return $themes;
}


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/**
 * This function is only used from {@link get_string()}.
 *
 * @internal Only used from get_string, not meant to be public API
 * @param string $identifier ?
 * @param string $langfile ?
 * @param string $destination ?
 * @return string|false ?
 * @staticvar array $strings Localized strings
 * @access private
 * @todo Finish documenting this function.
 */
function get_string_from_file($identifier, $langfile) {

    static $strings;    // Keep the strings cached in memory.

    if (empty($strings[$langfile])) {
        $string = array();
        include ($langfile);
        $strings[$langfile] = $string;
    } else {
        $string = &$strings[$langfile];
    }

    if (!isset ($string[$identifier])) {
        return false;
    }

    return $string[$identifier];
}

/**
 * This function makes the return value of ini_get consistent if you are
 * setting server directives through the .htaccess file in apache.
 * Current behavior for value set from php.ini On = 1, Off = [blank]
 * Current behavior for value set from .htaccess On = On, Off = Off
 * Contributed by jdell @ unr.edu
 *
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 * @param string $ini_get_arg setting to look for
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 * @return bool
 */
function ini_get_bool($ini_get_arg) {
    $temp = ini_get($ini_get_arg);

    if ($temp == '1' or strtolower($temp) == 'on') {
        return true;
    }
    return false;
}

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/**
 * This function loads up the basic $CFG
 * from the database table
 * note that it doesn't load plugin config
 * as not every page needs them
 * @return boolean false if the assignment fails (generally if the databse is not installed)
 */
function load_config() {
    global $CFG;
    
    try {
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        $dbconfig = get_records_array('config', '', '', '', 'field, value');
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    } 
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    catch (SQLException $e) {
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        // TODO: better reporting if config could not be obtained? This 
        // normally happens when the system isn't installed
        log_info($e->getMessage());
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        return false;
    }
    
    foreach ($dbconfig as $cfg) {
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        if (isset($CFG->{$cfg->field}) && $CFG->{$cfg->field} != $cfg->value) {
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            // @todo warn that we're overriding db config with $CFG
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            continue;
        }
        $CFG->{$cfg->field} = $cfg->value;
    }

    return true;
}

/**
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 * This function returns a value from $CFG
 * or null if it is not found
 * 
 * @param string $key config setting to look for 
 * @return mixed
 */
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function get_config($key) {
    global $CFG;
    if (array_key_exists($key,$CFG)) {
        return $CFG->$key;
    }
    return null;
}

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/**
 * This function sets a config variable
 * both in $CFG and in the database
 *
 * @param string $key config field to set
 * @param string $value config value
 */
function set_config($key, $value) {
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    global $CFG;

    if (get_record('config', 'field', $key)) {
        if (set_field('config', 'value', $value, 'field', $key)) {
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            $status = true;
        }
    } 
    else {
        $config = new StdClass;
        $config->field = $key;
        $config->value = $value;
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        $status = insert_record('config', $config);
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    }

    if (!empty($status)) {
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        $CFG->{$key} = $value;
        return true;
    }
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    return false;
}

/**
 * This function returns a value for $CFG for a plugin
 * or null if it is not found
 * note that it may go and look in the database
 *
 * @param string $plugintype eg artefact
 * @param string $pluginname eg blog
 * @param string $key the config setting to look for
 */
function get_config_plugin($plugintype, $pluginname, $key) {
    global $CFG;
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    // Suppress NOTICE with @ in case $key is not yet cached
    @$value = $CFG->plugin->{$plugintype}->{$pluginname}->{$key};
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    if (isset($value)) {
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        return $value;
    }

    $records = get_records_array($plugintype . '_config', 'plugin', $pluginname, 'field', 'field, value');
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    if (!empty($records)) {
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        foreach($records as $record) {
            $CFG->plugin->{$plugintype}->{$pluginname}->{$record->field} = $record->value;
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            if ($record->field == $key) {
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                $value = $record->value;
            }
        }
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    }

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    return $value;
}

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function set_config_plugin($plugintype, $pluginname, $key, $value) {
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    global $CFG;
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    $table = $plugintype . '_config';
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    if (false !== get_field($table, 'value', 'plugin', $pluginname, 'field', $key)) {
        //if (set_field($table, 'value', $key, 'plugin', $pluginname, 'field', $value)) {
        if (set_field($table, 'value', $value, 'plugin', $pluginname, 'field', $key)) {
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            $status = true;
        }
    }
    else {
        $pconfig = new StdClass;
        $pconfig->plugin = $pluginname;
        $pconfig->field  = $key;
        $pconfig->value  = $value;
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        $status = insert_record($table, $pconfig);
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    }
    if ($status) {
        $CFG->plugin->{$plugintype}->{$pluginname}->{$key} = $value;
        return true;
    }
    return false;
}

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/**
 * This function returns a value for $CFG for a plugin instance
 * or null if it is not found. Initially this is interesting only 
 * for multiauth. Note that it may go and look in the database
 *
 * @param string $plugintype   E.g. auth
 * @param string $pluginname   E.g. internal
 * @param string $pluginid     Instance id
 * @param string $key          The config setting to look for
 */
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function get_config_plugin_instance($plugintype, $pluginid, $key) {
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    global $CFG;

    // Must be unlikely to exist as a config option for any plugin
    $instance = '_i_n_s_t'.$pluginid;

    // Suppress NOTICE with @ in case $key is not yet cached
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    @$value = $CFG->plugin->{$plugintype}->{$instance}->{$key};
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    if (isset($value)) {
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        return $value;
    }

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    $records = get_records_array($plugintype . '_instance_config', 'instance', $pluginid, 'field', 'field, value');
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    if (!empty($records)) {
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        foreach($records as $record) {
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            $CFG->plugin->{$plugintype}->{$instance}->{$record->field} = $record->value;
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            if ($record->field == $key) {
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                $value = $record->value;
            }
        }
    }

    return $value;
}

/**
 * This function returns a value for $CFG for a plugin instance
 * or null if it is not found. Initially this is interesting only 
 * for multiauth. Note that it may go and look in the database
 *
 * @param string $plugintype   E.g. auth
 * @param string $pluginname   E.g. internal
 * @param string $pluginid     Instance id
 * @param string $key          The config setting to look for
 */
function set_config_plugin_instance($plugintype, $pluginname, $pluginid, $key, $value) {
    global $CFG;
    $table = $plugintype . '_instance_config';

    if (false !== get_field($table, 'value', 'instance', $pluginid, 'field', $key)) {
        if (set_field($table, 'value', $value, 'instance', $pluginid, 'field', $key)) {
            $status = true;
        }
    }
    else {
        $pconfig = new StdClass;
        $pconfig->instance = $pluginid;
        $pconfig->field  = $key;
        $pconfig->value  = $value;
        $status = insert_record($table, $pconfig);
    }
    if ($status) {
        // Must be unlikely to exist as a config option for any plugin
        $instance = '_i_n_s_t'.$pluginid;
        $CFG->plugin->{$plugintype}->{$pluginname}->{$instance}->{$key} = $value;
        return true;
    }
    return false;
}

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/**
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 * This function prints an array or object
 * wrapped inside <pre></pre>
 * 
 * @param $mixed value to print
 */
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function print_object($mixed) {
    echo '<pre>';
    print_r($mixed);
    echo '</pre>';
}

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/**
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 * This function returns the current 
 * language to use, either for a given user
 * or sitewide, or the default
 * 
 * @return string
 */
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function current_language() {
    global $USER, $CFG;
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    if ($USER instanceof User) {
        $lang = $USER->get_account_preference('lang');
        if ($lang !== null && $lang != 'default') {
            return $lang;
        }
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    }
    if (!empty($CFG->lang)) {
        return $CFG->lang;
    }
    return 'en.utf8';
}

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/**
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 * Helper function to sprintf language strings
 * with a variable number of arguments
 * 
 * @param string $string raw string to use
 * @param array $args arguments to sprintf
 */
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function format_langstring($string,$args) {
    return call_user_func_array('sprintf',array_merge(array($string),$args));
}

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/**
 * Helper function to figure out whether an array is an array or a hash
 * @param array $array array to check
 * @return bool true if the array is a hash
 */
function is_hash($array) {
    if (!is_array($array)) {
        return false;
    }
    $diff = array_diff_assoc($array,array_values($array));
    return !empty($diff);
}

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/**
 * Function to check if a directory exists and optionally create it.
 *
 * @param string absolute directory path
 * @param boolean create directory if does not exist
 * @param boolean create directory recursively
 *
 * @return boolean true if directory exists or created
 */
function check_dir_exists($dir, $create=true, $recursive=true) {

    $status = true;

    if(!is_dir($dir)) {
        if (!$create) {
            $status = false;
        } else {
            umask(0000); 
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            $status = @mkdir($dir, 0777, true);
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            // @todo has the umask been clobbered at this point, and is this a bad thing?
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        }
    }
    return $status;
}

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/**
 * Function to require a plugin file. This is to avoid doing 
 * require and include directly with variables.
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 *
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 * This function is the one safe point to require plugin files.
 * so USE it :)
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 *
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 * @param string $plugintype the type of plugin (eg artefact)
 * @param string $pluginname the name of the plugin (eg blog)
 * @param string $filename the name of the file to include within the plugin structure
 * @param string $function (optional, defaults to require) the require/include function to use
 * @param string $nonfatal (optional, defaults to false) just returns false if the file doesn't exist
 */
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function safe_require($plugintype, $pluginname, $filename='lib.php', $function='require_once', $nonfatal=false) {
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    $plugintypes = plugin_types();
    if (!in_array($plugintype, $plugintypes)) {
        throw new Exception("\"$plugintype\" is not a valid plugin type");
    }
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    require_once(get_config('docroot') . $plugintype . '/lib.php');

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    if (!in_array($function,array('require', 'include', 'require_once', 'include_once'))) {
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        if (!empty($nonfatal)) {
            return false;
        }
        throw new Exception ('invalid require type');
    }

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    if ($plugintype == 'blocktype') { // these are a bit of a special case
        $bits = explode('/', $pluginname);
        if (count($bits) == 2) {
           $fullpath = get_config('docroot') . 'artefact/' . $bits[0] . '/blocktype/' . $bits[1] . '/' . $filename;
        }
    } 
    if (empty($fullpath)) {
        $fullpath = get_config('docroot') . $plugintype . '/' . $pluginname . '/' . $filename;
    }

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    if (!$realpath = realpath($fullpath)) {
        if (!empty($nonfatal)) {
            return false;
        }
        throw new Exception ("File $fullpath did not exist");
    }

    if (strpos($realpath, get_config('docroot') !== 0)) {
        if (!empty($nonfatal)) {
            return false;
        }
        throw new Exception ("File $fullpath was outside document root!");
    }

    if ($function == 'require') { return require($realpath); }
    if ($function == 'include') { return include($realpath); }
    if ($function == 'require_once') { return require_once($realpath); }
    if ($function == 'include_once') { return include_once($realpath); }
    
}

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/**
 * This function returns the list of plugintypes we currently care about
 * @return array of names
 */
function plugin_types() {
    static $pluginstocheck;
    if (empty($pluginstocheck)) {
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        $pluginstocheck = array('artefact', 'auth', 'notification', 'search', 'blocktype');
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    }
    return $pluginstocheck;
}

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/** 
 * This return returns the names of plugins installed 
 * for the given plugin type.
 * 
 * @param string $plugintype type of plugin
 */
function plugins_installed($plugintype) {
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    return get_records_array($plugintype . '_installed');
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}

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/**
 * Helper to call a static method when you do not know the name of the class
 * you want to call the method on. PHP5 does not support $class::method().
 */
function call_static_method($class, $method) {
    $args = func_get_args();
    array_shift($args);
    array_shift($args);
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    return call_user_func_array(array($class, $method), $args);
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}

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function generate_class_name() {
    $args = func_get_args();
    return 'Plugin' . implode('', array_map('ucfirst', $args));
}

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function generate_artefact_class_name($type) {
    return 'ArtefactType' . ucfirst($type);
}

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function generate_blocktype_class_name($type) {
    return 'BlockType' . ucfirst($type);
}

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/**
 * Fires an event which can be handled by different parts of the system
 */
function handle_event($event, $data) {
    if (!$e = get_record('event_type', 'name', $event)) {
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        throw new Exception("Invalid event");
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    }
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    if ($data instanceof ArtefactType) {
        // leave it alone
    }
    else if (is_object($data)) {
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        $data = (array)$data;
    }
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    else if (is_numeric($data)) {
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        $data = array('id' => $data);
    }

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    // this is here because the core can't listen to events
    // @todo, this is VERY ugly, and someone should fix it
    if ($event == 'createuser') {
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        activity_set_defaults($data['id']);
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    }

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    $plugintypes = plugin_types();
    foreach ($plugintypes as $name) {
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        if ($subs = get_records_array($name . '_event_subscription', 'event', $event)) {
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            foreach ($subs as $sub) {
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                safe_require($name, $sub->plugin);
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                $classname = 'Plugin' . ucfirst($name) . ucfirst($sub->plugin);
                try {
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                    call_static_method($classname, $sub->callfunction, $event, $data);
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                }
                catch (Exception $e) {
                    log_warn("Event $event caused an exception from plugin $classname "
                             . "with function $sub->callfunction. Continuing with event handlers");
                }
            }
        }
    }
}

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/**
 * function to convert an array of objects to 
 * an array containing one field per place
 * 
 * @param array $array input array
 * @param mixed $field field to look for in each object
 */
function mixed_array_to_field_array($array, $field) {
    $repl_fun = create_function('$n, $field', '$n = (object)$n; return $n->{$field};');
    $fields = array_pad(array(), count($array), $field);
    return array_map($repl_fun, $array, $fields);
}


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/** 
 * Adds stuff to the log
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 * @todo write this function
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 *
 * @param string $plugintype plugin type or core
 * @param string $pluginname plugin name or core component (eg 'view')
 * @param string $action action string (like 'add')
 * @param int $user id of user making the action
 * @param int $id relevant id (ie, profile view would have id of profile owner)
 * 
 */
function add_to_log($plugintype, $pluginname, $action, $user, $id=0) {

}

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/**
 * Used by XMLDB
 */
function debugging ($message, $level) {
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    log_debug($message);
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}
function xmldb_dbg($message) {
    log_warn($message);
}
define('DEBUG_DEVELOPER', 'whocares');

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/** 
 * Base class for all plugintypes.
 */
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class Plugin {
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    /**
     * This function returns an array of crons it wants to have run
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     * Each item should be a StdClass object containing - 
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     * - callfunction (static function on the Plugin Class)
     * - any or all of minute, hour, day, month, dayofweek 
     * (will default to * if not supplied)
     */
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    public static function get_cron() {
        return array();
    }

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    /** 
     * This function returns an array of events to subscribe to
     * by unique name. 
     * If an event the plugin is trying to subscribe to is unknown by the
     * core, an exception will be thrown.
     * @return array
     */
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    public static function get_event_subscriptions() {
        return array();
    }

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    /**
     * This function will be run after every upgrade to the plugin.
     * 
     * @param int $fromversion version upgrading from (or 0 if installing)
     */
    public static function postinst($fromversion) {
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        return true;
    }
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    /**
     * Whether this plugin has admin plugin config options.
     * If you return true here, you must supply a valid pieform
     * in {@link get_config}
     */
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    public static function has_config() {
        return false;
    }
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}

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/**
 * formats a unix timestamp to a nice date format.
 * 
 * @param int $date unix timestamp to format
 * @param string $formatkey language key to fetch the format from
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 * @param string $notspecifiedkey (optional) language key to fetch 'not specified string' from
 * @param string $notspecifiedsection (optional) language section to fetch 'not specified string' from
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 * (see langconfig.php or the top of {@link get_string_location}
 * for supported keys
 */

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function format_date($date, $formatkey='strftimedatetime', $notspecifiedkey='strftimenotspecified', $notspecifiedsection='mahara') {
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    if (empty($date)) {
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        return get_string($notspecifiedkey, $notspecifiedsection);
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    }
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    return strftime(get_string($formatkey), $date);
}

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/**
 * Returns a random string suitable for registration/change password requests
 *
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 * @param int $length The length of the key to return
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 * @return string
 */
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function get_random_key($length=16) {
    if ($length < 1) {
        throw new IllegalArgumentException('Length must be a positive number');
    }
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    $pool = array_merge(
        range('A', 'Z'),
        range('a', 'z'),
        range(0, 9)
    );
    shuffle($pool);
    $result = '';
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    for ($i = 0; $i < $length; $i++) {
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        $result .= $pool[$i];
    }
    return $result;
}

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//
// Pieform related functions
//

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/**
 * Configures a default form
 */
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function pieform_configure() {
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    global $USER;
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    return array(
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        'method'    => 'post',
        'action'    => '',
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        'language'  => current_language(),
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        'autofocus' => true,
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        'renderer'  => 'maharatable',
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        'requiredmarker' => true,
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        'elementclasses' => true,
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        'jserrorcallback'       => 'formError',
        'globaljserrorcallback' => 'formGlobalError',
        'jssuccesscallback'     => 'formSuccess',
        'presubmitcallback'     => 'formStartProcessing',
        'postsubmitcallback'    => 'formStopProcessing',
        'jserrormessage' => get_string('errorprocessingform'),
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        'configdirs' => get_config('libroot') . 'form/',
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        'helpcallback' => 'pieform_get_help',
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        'elements'   => array(
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            'sesskey' => array(
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                'type'  => 'hidden',
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                'value' => $USER->get('sesskey')
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            )
        )
    );
}

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function pieform_validate(Pieform $form, $values) {
    global $USER;
    if (!isset($values['sesskey'])) {
        throw new UserException('No session key');
    }
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    if ($USER && $USER->is_logged_in() && $USER->get('sesskey') != $values['sesskey']) {
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        throw new UserException('Invalid session key');
    }

    // Check to make sure the user has not been suspended, so that they cannot
    // perform any action
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    if ($USER) {
        $record = get_record_sql('SELECT suspendedctime, suspendedreason
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            FROM {usr}
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            WHERE id = ?', array($USER->get('id')));
        if ($record && $record->suspendedctime) {
            throw new UserException(get_string('accountsuspended', 'mahara', $record->suspendedctime, $record->suspendedreason));
        }
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    }
}

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function pieform_element_calendar_configure($element) {
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    $element['jsroot'] = get_config('wwwroot') . 'js/jscalendar/';
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    $element['themefile'] = theme_get_url('style/calendar.css');
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    $element['imagefile'] = theme_get_url('images/calendar.gif');
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    $language = substr(current_language(), 0, 2);
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    $element['language'] = $language;
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    return $element;
}

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function pieform_element_textarea_configure($element) {
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    if (!array_key_exists('resizable', $element)) {
        $element['resizable'] = true;
    }
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    return $element;
}

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/**
 * Given a view id, and a user id (defaults to currently logged in user if not
 * specified) will return wether this user is allowed to look at this view.
 *
 * @param integer $view_id      View ID to check
 * @param integer $user_id      User trying to look at the view (defaults to
 * currently logged in user, or null if user isn't logged in)
 *
 * @returns boolean Wether the specified user can look at the specified view.
 */
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function can_view_view($view_id, $user_id=null) {
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    global $USER;
    $now = time();
    $dbnow = db_format_timestamp($now);

    if ($user_id === null) {
        $user_id = $USER->get('id');
    }

    $view_data = get_records_sql_array('
        SELECT
            v.title,
            v.owner,
            ' . db_format_tsfield('v.startdate','startdate') . ',
            ' . db_format_tsfield('v.stopdate','stopdate') . ',
            a.accesstype,
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            v.submittedto,
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            ' . db_format_tsfield('a.startdate','access_startdate') . ',
            ' . db_format_tsfield('a.stopdate','access_stopdate') . '
        FROM
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            {view} v
            LEFT OUTER JOIN {view_access} a ON v.id=a.view
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        WHERE v.id=?
    ', array($view_id));

    if(!$view_data) {
        throw new ViewNotFoundException("View id=$view_id doesn't exist");
    }

    $view_record = array( 'access' => array() );

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    //log_debug('Can you look at this view? (you are user ' . $user_id . ' trying to look at view ' . $view_id . ')');
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    foreach ( $view_data as $row ) {
        $view_record['title'] = $row->title;
        $view_record['owner'] = $row->owner;
        $view_record['startdate'] = $row->startdate;
        $view_record['stopdate'] = $row->stopdate;
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        $view_record['submittedto'] = $row->submittedto;
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        if (!isset($row->accesstype)) {
            continue;
        }
        
        $view_record['access'][$row->accesstype] = array(
            'startdate' => $row->access_startdate,
            'stopdate' => $row->access_stopdate,
        );
    }

    if ($USER->is_logged_in() && $view_record['owner'] == $user_id) {
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        //log_debug('Yes - you own this view');
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        return true;
    }

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    if ($view_record['submittedto'] && record_exists('group_member', 'group', $view_record['submittedto'], 'member', $user_id, 'tutor', 1)) {
        //log_debug('Yes - View is submitted for assesment to a group you are a tutor in');
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        return true;
    }

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    // check public
    if (
        isset($view_record['access']['public'])
        && (    
            $view_record['access']['public']['startdate'] == null
            || $view_record['access']['public']['startdate'] < $now
        )
        && (
            $view_record['access']['public']['stopdate'] == null
            || $view_record['access']['public']['stopdate'] > $now
        )
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    ) {
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        //log_debug('Yes - View is public');
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        return true;
    }

    // everything below this point requires that you be logged in
    if (!$USER->is_logged_in()) {
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        //log_debug('No - you are not logged in');
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        return false;
    }

    // check logged in
    if (
        isset($view_record['access']['loggedin'])
        && (    
            $view_record['access']['loggedin']['startdate'] == null
            || $view_record['access']['loggedin']['startdate'] < $now
        )
        && (
            $view_record['access']['loggedin']['stopdate'] == null
            || $view_record['access']['loggedin']['stopdate'] > $now
        )
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    ) {
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        //log_debug('Yes - View is available to logged in users');
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        return true;
    }

    // check friends access
    if (
        isset($view_record['access']['friends'])
        && (    
            $view_record['access']['friends']['startdate'] == null
            || $view_record['access']['friends']['startdate'] < $now
        )
        && (
            $view_record['access']['friends']['stopdate'] == null
            || $view_record['access']['friends']['stopdate'] > $now
        )
        && get_field_sql(
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            'SELECT COUNT(*) FROM {usr_friend} f WHERE (usr1=? AND usr2=?) OR (usr1=? AND usr2=?)',
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            array( $view_record['owner'], $user_id, $user_id, $view_record['owner'] )
        )
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    ) {
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        //log_debug('Yes - View is available to friends of the owner');
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        return true;
    }

    // check user access
    if (get_field_sql(
        'SELECT
            a.view
        FROM 
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            {view_access_usr} a
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        WHERE
            a.view=? AND a.usr=?
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            AND ( a.startdate < ? OR a.startdate IS NULL )
            AND ( a.stopdate > ?  OR a.stopdate  IS NULL )
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        LIMIT 1',
        array( $view_id, $user_id, $dbnow, $dbnow )
        )
    ) {
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        //log_debug('Yes - View is available to your user');
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        return true;
    }

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    // check group access
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    if (get_field_sql(
        'SELECT
            a.view
        FROM
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            {view_access_group} a
            INNER JOIN {group} g ON a.group = g.id
            INNER JOIN {group_member} m ON g.id=m.group
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        WHERE
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            a.view = ? 
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            AND ( a.startdate < ? OR a.startdate IS NULL )
            AND ( a.stopdate > ?  OR a.stopdate  IS NULL )
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            AND ( ( m.member = ? AND (a.tutoronly = 0 OR m.tutor = 1 ) ) OR g.owner = ?)
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        LIMIT 1',
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        array( $view_id, $dbnow, $dbnow, $user_id, $user_id  )
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        )
    ) {
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        //log_debug('Yes - View is available to a specific group');
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        return true;
    }

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    // check admin
    if (get_field('usr', 'admin', 'id', $user_id)) {
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        //log_debug('Yes - You are a site administrator');
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        return true;
    }

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    //log_debug('No - nothing matched');
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    return false;
}

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/**
 * get the views that a user can see belonging
 * to the given users
 *
 * @param array $users users to fetch views owned by
 * @param int $userlooking (optional, defaults to logged in user)
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 * @param int $limit grab this many views. (setting this null means get all)
 *
 * @return array Associative array keyed by userid, of arrays of view ids
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 */
function get_views($users, $userlooking=null, $limit=5) {
    $userlooking = optional_userid($userlooking);
    if (is_int($users)) {
        $users = array($users);
    }
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    $list = array();

    if(count($users) == 0) {
        return $list;
    }

    $users = array_flip($users);

    $dbnow  = db_format_timestamp(time());

    if ($friends = get_records_sql_array(
        'SELECT
            CASE WHEN usr1=? THEN usr2 ELSE usr1 END AS id
        FROM
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            {usr_friend} f
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        WHERE
            ( usr1=? AND usr2 IN (' . join(',',array_map('db_quote', array_keys($users))) . ') )
            OR
            ( usr2=? AND usr1 IN (' . join(',',array_map('db_quote', array_keys($users))) . ') )
        ',
        array($userlooking,$userlooking,$userlooking)
    )) {
        foreach ( $friends as $user_id ) {
            $users[$user_id->id] = 'friend';
        }
    }

    // public, logged in, or friends' views
    if ($results = get_records_sql_array(
        'SELECT
            v.*,
            ' . db_format_tsfield('atime') . ',
            ' . db_format_tsfield('mtime') . ',
            ' . db_format_tsfield('ctime') . '
        FROM 
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            {view} v
            INNER JOIN {view_access} a ON
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                v.id=a.view
                AND (
                    accesstype IN (\'public\',\'loggedin\')
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            ' . (
                    count(preg_grep('/^friend$/', $users)) > 0
                    ?  'OR (
                            accesstype = \'friends\'
                            AND v.owner IN (' . join(',',array_map('db_quote', array_keys(preg_grep('/^friend$/', $users)))) . ')
                        )'
                    : ''
                )
            . '
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                )
        WHERE
            v.owner IN (' . join(',',array_map('db_quote', array_keys($users))) . ')
            AND ( v.startdate IS NULL OR v.startdate < ? )
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            AND ( v.stopdate IS NULL OR v.stopdate > ? )
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        ',
        array( $dbnow, $dbnow )
        )
    ) {
        foreach ($results as &$row) {
            $list[$row->owner][$row->id] = $row;
        }
    }
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    // bail if we've filled all users to the limit
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    if (_get_views_trim_list($list, $users, $limit)) {
        return $list;
    }

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    // check individual user access
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    if ($results = get_records_sql_array(
        'SELECT
            v.*,
            ' . db_format_tsfield('atime') . ',
            ' . db_format_tsfield('mtime') . ',
            ' . db_format_tsfield('ctime') . '
        FROM 
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            {view} v
            INNER JOIN {view_access_usr} a ON v.id=a.view AND a.usr=?
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        WHERE
            v.owner IN (' . join(',',array_map('db_quote', array_keys($users))) . ')
            AND ( v.startdate IS NULL OR v.startdate < ? )
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            AND ( v.stopdate IS NULL OR v.stopdate > ? )
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        ',
        array($userlooking, $dbnow, $dbnow)
        )
    ) {
        foreach ($results as &$row) {
            $list[$row->owner][$row->id] = $row;
        }
    }

    // bail if we've filled all users to the limit
    if (_get_views_trim_list($list, $users, $limit)) {
        return $list;
    }

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    // check group access
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    if ($results = get_records_sql_array(
        'SELECT
            v.*,
            ' . db_format_tsfield('v.atime','atime') . ',
            ' . db_format_tsfield('v.mtime','mtime') . ',
            ' . db_format_tsfield('v.ctime','ctime') . '
        FROM 
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            {view} v
            INNER JOIN {view_access_group} a ON v.id=a.view
            INNER JOIN {group_member} m ON m.group=a.group AND m.member=?
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        WHERE
            v.owner IN (' . join(',',array_map('db_quote', array_keys($users))) . ')
            AND ( v.startdate IS NULL OR v.startdate < ? )
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            AND ( v.stopdate IS NULL OR v.stopdate > ? )
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        ',
        array($userlooking, $dbnow