lib.php 56 KB
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<?php
/**
 *
 * @package    mahara
 * @subpackage search-internal
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 * @author     Catalyst IT Ltd
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 * @license    http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html GNU GPL version 3 or later
 * @copyright  For copyright information on Mahara, please see the README file distributed with this software.
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 *
 */

defined('INTERNAL') || die();
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require_once(get_config('docroot') . 'search/lib.php');
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/**
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 * The internal search plugin which searches against the
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 * Mahara database.
 */
class PluginSearchInternal extends PluginSearch {

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    /**
     * This function indicates whether the plugin should take the raw $query string
     * when its group_search_user function is called, or whether it should get the
     * parsed query string.
     *
     * @return boolean
     */
    public static function can_process_raw_group_search_user_queries() {
        return true;
    }

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    public static function can_be_disabled() {
        return false;
    }

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    public static function has_config() {
        return true;
    }

    public static function get_config_options() {
        return array(
            'elements'   => array(
                'exactusersearch' =>  array(
                    'title'        => get_string('exactusersearch', 'search.internal'),
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                    'description'  => get_string('exactusersearchdescription2', 'search.internal'),
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                    'help'         => true,
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                    'type'         => 'switchbox',
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                    'defaultvalue' => get_config_plugin('search', 'internal', 'exactusersearch'),
                ),
            ),
        );
    }

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    public static function save_config_options(Pieform $form, $values) {
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        set_config_plugin('search', 'internal', 'exactusersearch', (int) $values['exactusersearch']);
    }

    public static function postinst($prevversion) {
        if ($prevversion == 0) {
            set_config_plugin('search', 'internal', 'exactusersearch', 1);
        }
    }

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    /**
     * Implement user searching with SQL
     *
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     * NOTE: user with ID zero should never be returned
     *
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     * @param string  The query string
     * @param integer How many results to return
     * @param integer What result to start at (0 == first result)
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     * @param data    Filters the users searched by
     *                can contain:
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     *             'friends' => boolean     // only return $USER's friends
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     *             'group' => integer, // only users in this group
     *             'owner' => boolean  // include the group ownwer (only if group is set)
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     *             'exclude'=> int     // excludes a user
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     * @return array  A data structure containing results looking like ...
     *         $results = array(
     *               count   => integer, // total number of results
     *               limit   => integer, // how many results are returned
     *               offset  => integer, // starting from which result
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     *               data    => array(   // the result records
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     *                   array(
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     *                       id            => integer,
     *                       username      => string,
     *                       institution   => string,
     *                       firstname     => string,
     *                       lastname      => string,
     *                       preferredname => string,
     *                       email         => string,
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     *                   ),
     *                   array(
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     *                       id            => integer,
     *                       username      => string,
     *                       institution   => string,
     *                       firstname     => string,
     *                       lastname      => string,
     *                       preferredname => string,
     *                       email         => string,
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     *                   ),
     *                   array(...),
     *               ),
     *           );
     */
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    public static function search_user($query_string, $limit, $offset = 0, $data=array()) {
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        global $USER;
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        $data = self::prepare_search_user_options($data);
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        $sql = '
            SELECT
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                COUNT(u.id)
            FROM {usr} u';
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        if (isset($data['group'])) {
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            $groupadminsql = '';
            if (isset($data['includeadmins']) and !$data['includeadmins']) {
                $groupadminsql = " AND gm.role != 'admin'";
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            }
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            $groupjoin = '
                INNER JOIN {group_member} gm ON
                    (gm.member = u.id AND gm.group = ' . (int)$data['group'] . $groupadminsql . ")\n";
            $sql .= $groupjoin;
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        }
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        $where = '
            WHERE
                u.id != 0 AND u.active = 1 AND u.deleted = 0';

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        if (!empty($data['friends'])) {
            // Only include friends in search
            $where .= ' AND u.id IN (
                SELECT usr1 FROM {usr_friend} f1 WHERE f1.usr2 = ' . $USER->get('id')
                . ' UNION SELECT usr2 FROM {usr_friend} f2 WHERE f2.usr1 = ' . $USER->get('id') . ')';
        }

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        if (isset($data['institutions']) && !empty($data['institutions'])) {
            $where .= '
                AND u.id IN (
                    SELECT usr FROM {usr_institution} WHERE institution IN ('
                . join(',', array_map('db_quote', $data['institutions'])) . ')
                )';
        }

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        $sql .= "
                LEFT OUTER JOIN {usr_account_preference} h ON (u.id = h.usr AND h.field = 'hiderealname')";
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        list($namesql, $values) = self::name_search_sql($query_string);
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        $where .= $namesql;
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        if (isset($data['exclude'])) {
            $where .= '
                AND u.id != ?';
            $values[] = $data['exclude'];
        }
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        $sql .= $where;
        $count = count_records_sql($sql, $values);
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        $result = array(
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            'count'   => $count,
            'limit'   => $limit,
            'offset'  => $offset,
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            'data'    => false,
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        );
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        if ($count < 1) {
            return $result;
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        }

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        $sql = '
            SELECT
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                u.id, u.username, u.firstname, u.lastname, u.preferredname, u.email, u.studentid, u.staff,
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                u.admin, u.profileicon, u.urlid
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            FROM {usr} u';
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        if (isset($data['group'])) {
            $sql .= $groupjoin;
        }
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        $sql .= "
                LEFT OUTER JOIN {usr_account_preference} h ON (u.id = h.usr AND h.field = 'hiderealname')";
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        $sql .= $where . '
            ORDER BY ' . $data['orderby'];

        $result['data'] = get_records_sql_array($sql, $values, $offset, $limit);

        if ($result['data']) {
            foreach ($result['data'] as &$item) {
                $item = (array)$item;
            }
        }

        return $result;
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    }
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    /**
     * Returns a snippet of an sql WHERE clause to filter users whose (visible)
     * names match the terms in a given query string.
     */
    function name_search_sql($query_string, $usralias='u', $usrprefalias='h') {
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        global $USER;
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        safe_require('artefact', 'internal');

        // Get the list of searchable profile fields from the internal artefact
        $required   = array_keys(ArtefactTypeProfile::get_always_searchable_fields());
        $optional   = array_diff(array_keys(ArtefactTypeProfile::get_searchable_fields()), $required);
        $required[] = 'username'; // Not a profile field, but used in the search query.

        // Get a list of match expressions to use in the WHERE clause
        $matches = new StdClass;
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        $valuecount = 0;
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        foreach (array_merge($required, $optional) as $f) {
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            list ($matchsql, $matchcount) = self::match_user_field_expression($f, $usralias);
            $matches->{$f} = $matchsql;
            $valuecount += $matchcount;
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        }

        $querydata = self::split_query_string(strtolower(trim($query_string)));
        $hidenameallowed = get_config('userscanhiderealnames') ? 'TRUE' : 'FALSE';
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        $searchusernamesallowed = $USER->get('admin') || $USER->get('staff') || !get_config('nousernames') ? 'TRUE' : 'FALSE';
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        $termsql = "$matches->preferredname
                    OR (
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                        ($usralias.preferredname IS NULL OR $usralias.preferredname = '' OR NOT $hidenameallowed OR $usrprefalias.value != '1' OR $usrprefalias.value IS NULL)
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                        AND ($matches->firstname OR $matches->lastname)
                    )
                    OR ($searchusernamesallowed AND $matches->username)";

        if ($optional) {
            foreach ($optional as $f) {
                $termsql .= "
                    OR {$matches->$f}";
            }
        }

        $where = '';
        $values = array();
        foreach ($querydata as $term) {
            $where .= '
                AND (
                    ' . $termsql . '
                )';
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            $values = array_pad($values, count($values) + $valuecount, $term);
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        }

        return array($where, $values);
    }



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    private static function match_user_field_expression($field, $alias) {
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        $sql = '';
        $values = 0;
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        if (get_config_plugin('search', 'internal', 'exactusersearch')) {
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            if ($field == 'email') {
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                $sql = '(LOWER(' . $alias . '.email) = ? OR (SELECT email FROM {artefact_internal_profile_email} ai WHERE ai.email = ? AND ai.owner = u.id AND ai.verified = 1) = ?)';
                $values = 3;
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            }
            else {
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                $sql = 'LOWER(' . $alias . '.' . $field . ') = ?';
                $values = 1;
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            }
        }
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        else {
            if ($field == 'email') {
                $sql = '(' . $alias . '.email ' . db_ilike() . " '%' || ? || '%' OR (SELECT email FROM {artefact_internal_profile_email} ai WHERE ai.email " . db_ilike() . " '%' || ? || '%' AND ai.owner = u.id AND ai.verified = 1 LIMIT 1) " . db_ilike() . " '%' ||  ? || '%')";
                $values = 3;
            }
            else {
                $sql = $alias . '.' . $field . ' ' . db_ilike() . " '%' || ? || '%'";
                $values = 1;
            }
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        }
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        return array($sql, $values);
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    }

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    /**
     * Split a query string into search terms.
     *
     * Contents of double-quoted strings are counted as a single term,
     * '"' can be entered as '\"', '\' as '\\'.
     */
    private static function split_query_string($query) {
        $terms = array();

        // Split string on unescaped double quotes
        $quotesplit = preg_split('/(?<!\\\)(\")/', $query, -1, PREG_SPLIT_DELIM_CAPTURE | PREG_SPLIT_NO_EMPTY);

        $inphrase = false;

        foreach ($quotesplit as $q) {
            if ($q == '"') {
                $inphrase = !$inphrase;
                continue;
            }

            // Remove escaping
            $q = preg_replace(array('/\x5C(?!\x5C)/u', '/\x5C\x5C/u'), array('','\\'), $q);
            if ($inphrase) {
                if ($trimmed = trim($q)) {
                    $terms[] = $trimmed;
                }
            }
            else {
                // Split unquoted sequences on spaces
                foreach (preg_split('/\s+/', $q, -1, PREG_SPLIT_NO_EMPTY) as $word) {
                    $terms[] = $word;
                }
            }
        }
        return $terms;
    }


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    private static function prepare_search_user_options($options) {
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        global $USER;
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        if (isset($options['group'])) {
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            // This option should only be used by group admins, so just ensure that the caller is
            // using it correctly.
            $roles = $USER->get('grouproles');
            if ($USER->get('admin') || $USER->get('staff')
                || (isset($roles[$options['group']]) && $roles[$options['group']] == 'admin')) {
                $options['group'] = intval($options['group']);
            }
            else {
                unset($options['group']);
            }
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        }
        if (isset($options['includeadmins'])) {
            $options['includeadmins'] = (bool)$options['includeadmins'];
        }
        if (isset($options['orderby']) && $options['orderby'] == 'lastname') {
            $options['orderby'] = 'u.lastname, u.firstname, u.id';
        }
        else {
            $options['orderby'] = 'u.firstname, u.lastname, u.id';
        }
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        if (isset($options['exclude'])) {
            $options['exclude'] = intval($options['exclude']);
        }
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        if (isset($options['myinstitutions'])) {
            if ($institutions = array_keys($USER->get('institutions'))) {
                $options['institutions'] = $institutions;
            }
        }
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        return $options;
    }
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    private static function match_expression($op, $string, &$values, $ilike) {
        switch ($op) {
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        case 'starts':
            $values[] = $string;
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            return ' ' . $ilike . ' ? || \'%\'';
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        case 'equals':
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            if ($string === null) {
                return ' IS NULL ';
            }
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            $values[] = $string;
            return ' = ? ';
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        case 'notequals':
            if (is_null($string)) {
                return ' IS NOT NULL ';
            }
            $values[] = $string;
            return ' <> ? ';
        case 'greaterthan':
            $values[] = $string;
            return ' > ? ';
        case 'greaterthanequal':
            $values[] = $string;
            return ' >= ? ';
        case 'lessthan':
            $values[] = $string;
            return ' < ? ';
        case 'lessthanequal':
            $values[] = $string;
            return ' <= ? ';
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        case 'contains':
            $values[] = $string;
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            return ' ' . $ilike . ' \'%\' || ? || \'%\'';
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        case 'in':
            return ' IN (' . join(',', array_map('db_quote',$string)) . ')';
        }
    }


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    /**
     * Returns a list of search results for the admin user search interface.
     *
     * The constraints parameter takes an array of arrays, like so:
     * $params = array(
     *     array(
     *         'field' => 'institution'
     *         'string' => 'mahara'
     *         'type' => 'equals'
     *     ),
     *     ...
     * )
     *
     * Each constraint should has these three keys:
     * field: Should be a column in the usr table, or the special field "duplicateemails" (which indicates only users with a non-unique email).
     *   also, for the field "institution", a string value of "mahara" indicates users with no institution
     * string: The value to compare the contents of that field against
     * type: The operation by which to compare "field" to "string". This can be any of the operations in PluginSearchInternal::match_expression
     *   (starts, equals, notequals, greaterthan, greaterthanequal, lessthan, lessthanequal, contains, or in)
     *
     * @param string $query_string The string to search for
     * @param array $constraints A list of constraints on the search results (see above for format)
     * @param int $offset
     * @param int $limit
     * @param string $sortfield Which of the output columns to sort by
     * @param string $sortdir DESC or ASC
     */
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    public static function admin_search_user($query_string, $constraints, $offset, $limit,
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                                             $sortfield, $sortdir) {
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        $sort = 'TRUE';
        if (preg_match('/^[a-zA-Z_0-9"]+$/', $sortfield)) {
            $sort = $sortfield;
            if (strtoupper($sortdir) != 'DESC') {
                $sort .= ' ASC';
            }
            else {
                $sort .= ' DESC';
            }
        }
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        $join = '';
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        $where = 'WHERE u.id <> 0 AND u.deleted = 0';
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        $values = array();

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        // Get the correct keyword for case insensitive LIKE
        $ilike = db_ilike();

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        // Generate the part that matches the search term
        $querydata = self::split_query_string(strtolower(trim($query_string)));
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        $matches = array();
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        $valuecount = 0;
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        foreach (array('firstname', 'lastname', 'preferredname', 'username', 'email') as $f) {
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            list ($matchsql, $matchcount) = self::match_user_field_expression($f, 'u');
            $matches[] = $matchsql;
            $valuecount += $matchcount;
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        }

        $termsql = join(" OR ", $matches);

        $values = array();
        foreach ($querydata as $term) {
            $where .= '
                AND (
                    ' . $termsql . '
                )';
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            $values = array_pad($values, count($values) + $valuecount, $term);
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        }
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        $firstcols = 'u.id';
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        if (!empty($constraints)) {
            foreach ($constraints as $f) {
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                if ($f['field'] == 'institution') {
                    if ($f['string'] == 'mahara') {
                        $where .= ' AND u.id NOT IN (SELECT usr FROM {usr_institution})';
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                    }
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                    else {
                        $where .= '
                            AND u.id IN (
                                SELECT usr FROM {usr_institution} WHERE institution '
                            . PluginSearchInternal::match_expression($f['type'], $f['string'], $values, $ilike) . '
                            )';
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                    }
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                }
                else if ($f['field'] == 'duplicateemail') {
                    if (!empty($f['string'])) {
                        $where .= '
                            AND u.id IN (
                                SELECT owner
                                FROM {artefact}
                                WHERE id IN (' . join(',', array_map('db_quote', $f['string'])) . ')
                            )';
                    }
                    else {
                        // No duplicate email is found, return empty list
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                        $where .= ' AND FALSE';
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                    }
                }
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                else if ($f['field'] == 'exportqueue') {
                    $firstcols = 'e.id AS eid,
                      (SELECT case WHEN e.starttime IS NOT NULL THEN ' . db_format_tsfield('e.starttime', false) . ' ELSE ' . db_format_tsfield('e.ctime', false) . ' END) AS status,
                      ' . $firstcols;
                    $join .= 'JOIN {export_queue} e ON e.usr = u.id ';
                    $where .= ' AND u.id'
                        . PluginSearchInternal::match_expression($f['type'], $f['string'], $values, $ilike);
                }
                else if ($f['field'] == 'archivesubmissions') {
                    $firstcols = 'e.id AS eid, a.group,
                      (SELECT name FROM {group} WHERE id = a.group) AS submittedto,
                      (SELECT case WHEN a.externalid IS NOT NULL THEN a.externalid ELSE CAST(e.id AS char) END) AS specialid,
                      e.filetitle, e.filename, e.filepath, ' . db_format_tsfield('e.ctime', 'archivectime') . ', ' . $firstcols;
                    $join .= 'JOIN {export_archive} e ON e.usr = u.id ';
                    $join .= 'JOIN {archived_submissions} a ON a.archiveid = e.id ';
                    $where .= ' AND u.id'
                        . PluginSearchInternal::match_expression($f['type'], $f['string'], $values, $ilike);
                }
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                else {
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                    $where .= ' AND u.' . $f['field']
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                        . PluginSearchInternal::match_expression($f['type'], $f['string'], $values, $ilike);
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                }
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            }
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        }

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        $count = get_field_sql('SELECT COUNT(*) FROM {usr} u ' . $join . $where, $values);
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        if ($count > 0) {
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            $data = get_records_sql_assoc('
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                SELECT ' . $firstcols . ',
                    u.firstname, u.lastname, u.preferredname, u.username, u.email, u.staff, u.profileicon,
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                    u.lastlogin, u.active, NOT u.suspendedcusr IS NULL as suspended, au.instancename AS authname
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                FROM {usr} u INNER JOIN {auth_instance} au ON u.authinstance = au.id ' . $join . $where . '
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                ORDER BY ' . $sort . ', u.id',
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                $values,
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                $offset,
                $limit);
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            if ($data) {
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                $inst = get_records_select_array('usr_institution',
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                                                 'usr IN (' . join(',', array_keys($data)) . ')',
                                                 null, '', 'usr,institution');
                if ($inst) {
                    foreach ($inst as $i) {
                        $data[$i->usr]->institutions[] = $i->institution;
                    }
                }
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                foreach ($data as &$item) {
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                    $item->username = display_username($item);
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                    $item = (array)$item;
                }
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                $data = array_values($data);
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            }
        }
        else {
            $data = false;
        }

        return array(
            'count'   => $count,
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            'limit'   => $limit,
            'offset'  => $offset,
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            'data'    => $data,
        );
    }

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    public static function group_search_user($group, $query_string, $constraints, $offset, $limit, $membershiptype, $order, $friendof, $orderbyoptionidx=null) {
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        list($searchsql, $values) = self::name_search_sql($query_string);
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        $orderbyoptions = array(
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            'adminfirst' => 'gm.role = \'admin\' DESC, gm.role = \'tutor\' DESC,
                           CASE WHEN NOT u.preferredname IS NULL AND u.preferredname <> \'\' THEN u.preferredname ELSE u.firstname END ASC,
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                           CASE WHEN NOT u.preferredname IS NULL AND u.preferredname <> \'\' THEN u.preferredname ELSE u.lastname END ASC, gm.ctime, u.id',
            'nameatoz' => 'CASE WHEN NOT u.preferredname IS NULL AND u.preferredname <> \'\' THEN u.preferredname ELSE u.firstname END ASC,
                           CASE WHEN NOT u.preferredname IS NULL AND u.preferredname <> \'\' THEN u.preferredname ELSE u.lastname END ASC, gm.ctime, u.id',
            'nameztoa' => 'CASE WHEN NOT u.preferredname IS NULL AND u.preferredname <> \'\' THEN u.preferredname ELSE u.firstname END DESC,
                           CASE WHEN NOT u.preferredname IS NULL AND u.preferredname <> \'\' THEN u.preferredname ELSE u.lastname END DESC, gm.ctime, u.id',
            'firstjoined' => 'gm.ctime ASC, CASE WHEN NOT u.preferredname IS NULL AND u.preferredname <> \'\' THEN u.preferredname ELSE u.firstname END ASC,
                           CASE WHEN NOT u.preferredname IS NULL AND u.preferredname <> \'\' THEN u.preferredname ELSE u.lastname END ASC, u.id',
            'lastjoined' => 'gm.ctime DESC, CASE WHEN NOT u.preferredname IS NULL AND u.preferredname <> \'\' THEN u.preferredname ELSE u.firstname END ASC,
                           CASE WHEN NOT u.preferredname IS NULL AND u.preferredname <> \'\' THEN u.preferredname ELSE u.lastname END ASC, u.id'
        );
        if (! key_exists($orderbyoptionidx, $orderbyoptions)) {
            $orderbyoptionidx = 'adminfirst';
        }

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        if ($membershiptype == 'nonmember') {
            $select = '
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                    u.id, u.firstname, u.lastname, u.username, u.email, u.profileicon, u.staff, u.urlid, u.preferredname';
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            $from = '
                FROM {usr} u
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                    LEFT OUTER JOIN {usr_account_preference} h ON (u.id = h.usr AND h.field = \'hiderealname\')
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                WHERE u.id > 0 AND u.deleted = 0 ' . $searchsql . '
                    AND NOT u.id IN (SELECT member FROM {group_member} gm WHERE gm.group = ?)';
            $values[] = $group;
            $orderby = 'u.firstname, u.lastname, u.id';
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        }
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        else if ($membershiptype == 'notinvited') {
            $select = '
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                    u.id, u.firstname, u.lastname, u.username, u.email, u.profileicon, u.staff, u.urlid, u.preferredname';
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            $from = '
                FROM {usr} u
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                    LEFT OUTER JOIN {usr_account_preference} h ON (u.id = h.usr AND h.field = \'hiderealname\')
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                WHERE u.id > 0 AND u.deleted = 0 ' . $searchsql . '
                    AND NOT u.id IN (SELECT member FROM {group_member} gm WHERE gm.group = ?)
                    AND NOT u.id IN (SELECT member FROM {group_member_invite} gmi WHERE gmi.group = ?)';
            $values[] = $group;
            $values[] = $group;
            $orderby = 'u.firstname, u.lastname, u.id';
        }
        else if ($membershiptype == 'request') {
            $select = '
                    u.id, u.firstname, u.lastname, u.username, u.email, u.profileicon,
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                    u.staff, u.urlid, u.preferredname, ' . db_format_tsfield('gm.ctime', 'jointime');
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            $from = '
                FROM {usr} u
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                    INNER JOIN {group_member_request} gm ON (gm.member = u.id)
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                    LEFT OUTER JOIN {usr_account_preference} h ON (u.id = h.usr AND h.field = \'hiderealname\')
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                WHERE u.id > 0 AND u.deleted = 0 ' . $searchsql . '
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                    AND gm.group = ?';
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            $values[] = $group;
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            if ($orderbyoptionidx == 'adminfirst') {
                $orderbyoptionidx = 'nameatoz';
            }
            $orderby = $orderbyoptions[$orderbyoptionidx];
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        }
        else if ($membershiptype == 'invite') {
            $select = '
                    u.id, u.firstname, u.lastname, u.username, u.email, u.profileicon,
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                    u.staff, u.urlid, u.preferredname, ' . db_format_tsfield('gm.ctime', 'jointime');
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            $from = '
                FROM {usr} u
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                    INNER JOIN {group_member_invite} gm ON (gm.member = u.id)
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                    LEFT OUTER JOIN {usr_account_preference} h ON (u.id = h.usr AND h.field = \'hiderealname\')
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                WHERE u.id > 0 AND u.deleted = 0 ' . $searchsql . '
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                    AND gm.group = ?';
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            $values[] = $group;
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            $orderby = $orderbyoptions[$orderbyoptionidx];
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        }
        else { // All group members
            $select = '
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                    u.id, u.firstname, u.lastname, u.username, u.preferredname, u.email, u.profileicon,
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                    u.staff, u.urlid, u.preferredname, ' . db_format_tsfield('gm.ctime', 'jointime') . ', gm.role';
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            $from = '
                FROM {usr} u
                    INNER JOIN {group_member} gm ON (gm.member = u.id)
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                    LEFT OUTER JOIN {usr_account_preference} h ON (u.id = h.usr AND h.field = \'hiderealname\')
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                WHERE u.id > 0 AND u.deleted = 0 ' . $searchsql . '
                    AND gm.group = ?';
            $values[] = $group;
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            $orderby = $orderbyoptions[$orderbyoptionidx];
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            if ($order == 'latest') {
                $orderby = 'gm.ctime DESC, u.firstname, u.lastname, u.id';
            }
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        }

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        if ($order == 'random') {
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            $orderby = db_random();
        }

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        if ($friendof) {
            $from .= '
                    AND u.id IN (
                        SELECT usr1 FROM {usr_friend} WHERE usr2 = ? UNION SELECT usr2 FROM {usr_friend} WHERE usr1 = ?
                    )';
            array_push($values, $friendof, $friendof);
        }

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        $count = get_field_sql('SELECT COUNT(*)' . $from, $values);
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        if ($count > 0) {
            $data = get_records_sql_assoc('
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                SELECT ' . $select . $from . ' ORDER BY ' . $orderby,
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                $values,
                $offset,
                $limit);

            if ($data) {
                foreach ($data as &$item) {
                    $item = (array)$item;
                }
                $data = array_values($data);
            }
        }
        else {
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            $data = array();
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        }

        return array(
            'count'   => $count,
            'limit'   => $limit,
            'offset'  => $offset,
            'data'    => $data,
        );
    }

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    public static function institutional_admin_search_user($query, $institution, $limit) {
        $sql = '
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            FROM {usr} u LEFT OUTER JOIN {usr_tag} t ON (t.usr = u.id) ';
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        $where = '
            WHERE u.id <> 0 AND u.deleted = 0 ';

        $values = array();
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        if ($query != '') {
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            $where .= 'AND (t.tag = LOWER(?) OR ';
            $values[] = $query;
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            $query = preg_replace('/\s\s+/', ' ', $query);
            $words = explode(' ', $query);
            foreach ($words as &$word) {
                $values[] = $word;
                $values[] = $word;
                $word = 'u.firstname ' . db_ilike() . ' \'%\' || ? || \'%\' OR u.lastname ' . db_ilike() . ' \'%\' || ? || \'%\'';
            }
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            $where .= join(' OR ', $words) . ') ';
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        }

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        $studentid = '';
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        if (!is_null($institution->member)) {
            $sql .= '
                LEFT OUTER JOIN {usr_institution} member ON (member.usr = u.id
                    AND member.institution = ' . db_quote($institution->name) . ')';
            $where .= '
                AND ' . ($institution->member ? ' NOT ' : '') . ' member.usr IS NULL';
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            $studentid = ', member.studentid';
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        }
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        if (!is_null($institution->requested) || !is_null($institution->invitedby)) {
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            $sql .= '
                LEFT OUTER JOIN {usr_institution_request} req ON (req.usr = u.id
                    AND req.institution = ' . db_quote($institution->name) . ')';
            if (!is_null($institution->requested)) {
                if ($institution->requested == 1) {
                    $where .= ' AND req.confirmedusr = 1';
                } else {
                    $where .= ' AND (req.confirmedusr = 0 OR req.confirmedusr IS NULL)';
                }
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                $studentid = ', req.studentid';
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            }
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            if (!is_null($institution->invitedby)) {
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                if ($institution->invitedby == 1) {
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                    $where .= ' AND req.confirmedinstitution = 1';
                } else {
                    $where .= ' AND (req.confirmedinstitution = 0 OR req.confirmedinstitution IS NULL)';
                }
            }
        }
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        if (!is_null($institution->lastinstitution)) {
            $where .= " AND t.tag = ?";
            $values[] = 'lastinstitution:' . $institution->lastinstitution;
        }
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        $count = get_field_sql('SELECT COUNT(*) ' . $sql . $where, $values);

        if ($count > 0) {
            $data = get_records_sql_array('
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                SELECT
                    u.id, u.firstname, u.lastname, u.username, u.preferredname,
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                    u.admin, u.staff' . $studentid . $sql . $where . '
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                GROUP BY u.id, u.firstname, u.lastname, u.username, u.preferredname, u.admin, u.staff' . $studentid . '
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                ORDER BY u.firstname ASC',
                $values,
                0,
                $limit);
            foreach ($data as &$item) {
                $item = (array)$item;
            }
        }
        else {
            $data = false;
        }

        return array(
            'count'   => $count,
            'limit'   => $limit,
            'offset'  => 0,
            'data'    => $data,
        );
    }





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    /**
     * Implement group searching with SQL
     *
     * @param string  The query string
     * @param integer How many results to return
     * @param integer What result to start at (0 == first result)
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     * @param string  Which groups to search (all, member, notmember)
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     * @param string  Category the group belongs to
     * @param string  The institution the group belongs
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     * @return array  A data structure containing results looking like ...
     *         $results = array(
     *               count   => integer, // total number of results
     *               limit   => integer, // how many results are returned
     *               offset  => integer, // starting from which result
     *               data    => array(   // the result records
     *                   array(
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     *                       id            => integer,
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     *                       name          => string,
     *                       description   => string,
     *                       jointype      => string,
     *                       owner         => string,
     *                       ctime         => string,
     *                       mtime         => string,
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     *                   ),
     *                   array(
     *                       id            => integer,
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     *                       name          => string,
     *                       description   => string,
     *                       jointype      => string,
     *                       owner         => string,
     *                       ctime         => string,
     *                       mtime         => string,
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     *                   ),
     *                   array(...),
     *               ),
     *           );
     */
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    public static function search_group($query_string, $limit, $offset=0, $type='member', $category='', $institution='all') {
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        global $USER;
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        $data = array();

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        $sql = "
            FROM
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                {group}
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            WHERE (
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                name " . db_ilike() . " '%' || ? || '%'
                OR description " . db_ilike() . " '%' || ? || '%'
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                OR shortname " . db_ilike() . " '%' || ? || '%'
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            ) AND deleted = 0 ";
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        $values = array($query_string, $query_string, $query_string);
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        if (!$grouproles = join(',', array_keys($USER->get('grouproles')))) {
            $grouproles = '-1';
        }

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        $canseehidden = $USER->get('admin') || $USER->get('staff');

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        if ($type == 'member') {
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            $sql .=  'AND id IN (' . $grouproles . ')';
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        }
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        else if ($type == 'notmember') {
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            $sql .= 'AND id NOT IN (' . $grouproles . ')';
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        }
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        else if ($type == 'canjoin') {
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            $sql .= 'AND (jointype != ? AND NOT (jointype = ? AND request = 0)) AND id NOT IN (' . $grouproles . ')';
            $values = array_merge($values, array('controlled', 'approve'));
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        }

        if (!$canseehidden) {
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            $sql .= ' AND (hidden = 0 OR id IN (' . $grouproles . '))';
        }

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        if (!empty($category)) {
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            if ($category == -1) { //find unassigned groups
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                $sql .= " AND category IS NULL";
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            } else {
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                $sql .= ' AND category = ?';
                $values[] = $category;
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            }
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        }
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        if ($institution != 'all') {
            $sql .= ' AND institution = ?';
            $values[] = $institution;
        }
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        $count = get_field_sql('SELECT COUNT(*) '.$sql, $values);

        if ($count > 0) {
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            $sql = 'SELECT * ' . $sql . ' ORDER BY name';
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            $data = get_records_sql_array($sql, $values, $offset, $limit);
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        }
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        return array(
            'count'   => $count,
            'limit'   => $limit,
            'offset'  => $offset,
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            'data'    => $data,
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        );
    }
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    /**
     * Given a query string and limits, return an array of matching objects
     * owned by the current user.  Possible return types are ...
     *   - artefact
     *   - view
     *
     * Implementations of this search should search across tags for artefacts
     * and views at a minimum. Ideally the search would also index
     * title/description and other metadata for these objects.
     *
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     * NOTE: This implementation of internal search only does artefacts, and
     * badly at that. See the bug tracker for more information.
     *
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     * @param string  The query string
     * @param integer How many results to return
     * @param integer What result to start at (0 == first result)
     * @param string  Type to search for (either 'all' or one of the types above).
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     *
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     */
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    public static function self_search($querystring, $limit, $offset, $type = 'all') {
        global $USER;
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        if (trim($querystring) == '') {
            return false;
        }

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        // Tokenise the search
        $querydata = self::search_parse_query($querystring);

        $sql = "
            SELECT
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                a.id, a.artefacttype, a.title, a.description
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            FROM
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                {artefact} a
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            LEFT JOIN {artefact_tag} at ON (at.artefact = a.id)
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            WHERE
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                a.owner = ?
            AND (
                ($querydata[0])
                OR
                (LOWER(at.tag) = ?)
            )";
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        $count_sql = "
            SELECT
                COUNT(*)
            FROM
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                {artefact} a
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            LEFT JOIN {artefact_tag} at ON (at.artefact = a.id)
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            WHERE
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                a.owner = ?
            AND (
                ($querydata[0])
                OR
                (LOWER(at.tag) = ?)
            )";
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        array_unshift($querydata[1], $USER->get('id'));
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        array_push($querydata[1], strtolower($querystring));
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        $results = array(
            'data'   => get_records_sql_array($sql, $querydata[1], $offset, $limit),
            'offset' => $offset,
            'limit'  => $limit,
            'count'  => get_field_sql($count_sql, $querydata[1])
        );

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        if ($results['data']) {
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            require_once(get_config('docroot') . 'artefact/lib.php');
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            foreach ($results['data'] as &$result) {
                $newresult = array();
                foreach ($result as $key => &$value) {
                    if ($key == 'id' || $key == 'artefacttype' || $key == 'title' || $key == 'description') {
                        $newresult[$key] = $value;
                    }
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                }
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                $newresult['type'] = 'artefact';
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                $artefact = artefact_instance_from_id($newresult['id']);
                $artefactplugin = $artefact->get_plugin_name();
                if ($artefactplugin == 'internal' && in_array($artefact->get('artefacttype'), PluginArtefactInternal::get_profile_artefact_types())) {
                    // Profile artefact
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                    $newresult['summary'] = $newresult['title'];
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                    $newresult['title'] = get_string($artefact->get('artefacttype'), 'artefact.' . $artefactplugin);
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                }
                else {
                    $newresult['summary'] = $newresult['description'];
                }
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                $newresult['summary'] = clean_html($newresult['summary']);
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                $result = $newresult;
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            }
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            self::self_search_make_links($results);
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        }

        return $results;
    }


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    /**
     * Returns portfolio items (artefacts, views) owned by $owner and tagged
     * with $tag.
     *
     * @param string   $tag Tag
     * @param object   $owner: owner type (user,group,institution), and id
     * @param integer  $limit
     * @param integer  $offset
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     * @param string   $sort
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     * @param array    $types view/artefacttype filters
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     * @param boolean  $returntags Return all the tags that have been attached to each result
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     */
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    public static function portfolio_search_by_tag($tag, $owner, $limit, $offset, $sort, $types, $returntags) {
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        $viewfilter = is_null($types) || $types['view'] == true ? 'AND TRUE' : 'AND FALSE';
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        $collectionfilter = is_null($types) || $types['collection'] == true ? 'AND TRUE' : 'AND FALSE';
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        if (is_null($types)) {
            $artefacttypefilter = '';
        }
        else if (!empty($types['artefact'])) {
            $artefacttypefilter = ' AND a.artefacttype IN (' . join(',', array_map('db_quote', $types['artefact'])) . ')';
        }
        else {
            $artefacttypefilter = ' AND FALSE';
        }

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        if (!is_null($tag)) {
            $artefacttypefilter .= ' AND at.tag = ?';
            $viewfilter .= ' AND vt.tag = ?';
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            $collectionfilter .= ' AND ct.tag = ?';
            $values = array($owner->id, $tag, $owner->id, $tag, $owner->id, $tag);
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        }
        else {
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            $values = array($owner->id, $owner->id, $owner->id);
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        }

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        $from = "
        FROM (
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           (SELECT a.id, a.title, a.description, 'artefact' AS type, a.artefacttype, " . db_format_tsfield('a.ctime', 'ctime') . ",
                a.owner, a.group, a.institution, NULL AS urlid
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            FROM {artefact} a JOIN {artefact_tag} at ON (a.id = at.artefact)
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            WHERE a.owner = ?" . $artefacttypefilter . ")
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           UNION
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           (SELECT v.id, v.title, v.description, 'view' AS type, NULL AS artefacttype, " . db_format_tsfield('v.ctime', 'ctime') . ",
                v.owner, v.group, v.institution, v.urlid
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            FROM {view} v JOIN {view_tag} vt ON (v.id = vt.view)
            WHERE v.owner = ? " . $viewfilter . ")
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           UNION
           (SELECT c.id, c.name, c.description, 'collection' AS type, NULL AS artefacttype, " . db_format_tsfield('c.ctime', 'ctime') . ",
                c.owner, c.group, c.institution, NULL AS urlid
            FROM {collection} c JOIN {collection_tag} ct ON (c.id = ct.collection)
            WHERE c.owner = ? " . $collectionfilter . ")
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        ) p";

        $result = (object) array(
            'tag'    => $tag,
            'owner'  => $owner,
            'offset' => $offset,
            'limit'  => $limit,
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            'sort'   => $sort,
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            'count'  => 0,
            'data'   => array(),
        );

        if ($count = count_records_sql('SELECT COUNT(*) ' . $from, $values, $offset, $limit)) {
            $result->count = $count;
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            $sort = $sort == 'date' ? 'ctime DESC' : 'title ASC';
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            if ($data = get_records_sql_assoc("SELECT type || ':' || id AS tid, p.* " . $from . ' ORDER BY ' . $sort, $values, $offset, $limit)) {
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                if ($returntags) {
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                    $ids = array('view' => array(), 'collection' => array(), 'artefact' => array());
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                    foreach ($data as &$d) {
                        $ids[$d->type][$d->id] = 1;
                    }
                    if (!empty($ids['view'])) {
                        if ($viewtags = get_records_select_array('view_tag', 'view IN (' . join(',', array_keys($ids['view'])) . ')')) {
                            foreach ($viewtags as &$vt) {
                                $data['view:' . $vt->view]->tags[] = $vt->tag;
                            }
                        }
                    }
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                    if (!empty($ids['collection'])) {
                        if ($collectiontags = get_records_select_array('collection_tag', 'collection IN (' . join(',', array_keys($ids['collection'])) . ')')) {
                            foreach ($collectiontags as &$ct) {
                                $data['collection:' . $ct->collection]->tags[] = $ct->tag;
                            }
                        }
                    }
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                    if (!empty($ids['artefact'])) {
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                        if ($artefacttags = get_records_select_array('artefact_tag', 'artefact IN (' . join(',', array_keys($ids['artefact'])) . ')', NULL, 'tag')) {
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                            foreach ($artefacttags as &$at) {
                                $data['artefact:' . $at->artefact]->tags[] = $at->tag;
                            }
                        }
                    }
                }
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                $result->data = $data;
            }
        }
        return $result;
    }


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    /**
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     * Parses a query string into SQL fragments for searching. Supports
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     * phrases, AND/OR etc.
     *
     * Lifted from drupal 5.1, (C) 2007 Drupal
     *
     * This function comes from Drupal's search module, with some small changes.
     */
    private static function search_parse_query($text) {
        $keys = array('positive' => array(), 'negative' => array());

        // Tokenize query string
        preg_match_all('/ (-?)("[^"]+"|[^" ]+)/i', ' '. $text, $matches, PREG_SET_ORDER);

        if (count($matches) < 1) {
          return NULL;
        }

        // Classify tokens
        $or = FALSE;
        foreach ($matches as $match) {
          $phrase = FALSE;
          // Strip off phrase quotes
          if ($match[2]{0} == '"') {
            $match[2] = substr($match[2], 1, -1);
            $phrase = TRUE;
          }
          // Simplify keyword according to indexing rules and external preprocessors
          $words = self::search_simplify($match[2]);
          // Re-explode in case simplification added more words, except when matching a phrase
          $words = $phrase ? array($words) : preg_split('/ /', $words, -1, PREG_SPLIT_NO_EMPTY);
          // Negative matches
          if ($match[1] == '-') {
            $keys['negative'] = array_merge($keys['negative'], $words);
          }
          // OR operator: instead of a single keyword, we store an array of all
          // OR'd keywords.
          elseif ($match[2] == 'OR' && count($keys['positive'])) {
            $last = array_pop($keys['positive']);
            // Starting a new OR?
            if (!is_array($last)) {
              $last = array($last);
            }
            $keys['positive'][] = $last;
            $or = TRUE;
            continue;
          }
          // Plain keyword
          else {
            if ($or) {
              // Add to last element (which is an array)
              $keys['positive'][count($keys['positive']) - 1] = array_merge($keys['positive'][count($keys['positive']) - 1], $words);
            }
            else {
              $keys['positive'] = array_merge($keys['positive'], $words);
            }
          }
          $or = FALSE;
        }

        // Convert keywords into SQL statements.
        $query = array();
        //$query2 = array();
        $arguments = array();
        $arguments2 = array();
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        //$matches = 0;
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        // Positive matches
        foreach ($keys['positive'] as $key) {
          // Group of ORed terms
          if (is_array($key) && count($key)) {
            $queryor = array();
            $any = FALSE;
            foreach ($key as $or) {
              list($q, $count) = self::_search_parse_query($or, $arguments2);
              $any |= $count;
              if ($q) {
                $queryor[] = $q;
                $arguments[] = $or;
                $arguments[] = $or;
              }
            }

            if (count($queryor)) {
              $query[] = '('. implode(' OR ', $queryor) .')';
              // A group of OR keywords only needs to match once
              //$matches += ($any > 0);
            }
          }
          // Single ANDed term
          else {
            list($q, $count) = self::_search_parse_query($key, $arguments2);
            if ($q) {
              $query[] = $q;
              $arguments[] = $key;
              $arguments[] = $key;
              // Each AND keyword needs to match at least once
              //$matches += $count;
            }
          }
        }
        // Negative matches
        foreach ($keys['negative'] as $key) {
          list($q) = self::_search_parse_query($key, $arguments2, TRUE);
          if ($q) {
            $query[] = $q;
            $arguments[] = $key;
            $arguments[] = $key;
          }
        }
        $query = implode(' AND ', $query);

        // Build word-index conditions for the first pass
        //$query2 = substr(str_repeat("i.word = '%s' OR ", count($arguments2)), 0, -4);

        return array($query, $arguments, /*$query2, $arguments2, $matches*/);
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    }
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    /**
     * Helper function for search_parse_query();
     */
    private static function _search_parse_query(&$word, &$scores, $not = FALSE) {
      $count = 0;
      // Determine the scorewords of this word/phrase
      if (!$not) {
        $split = explode(' ', $word);
        foreach ($split as $s) {
          $num = is_numeric($s);
          if ($num || strlen($s) >= /*variable_get('minimum_word_size', 3)*/3) {
            $s = $num ? ((int)ltrim($s, '-0')) : $s;
            if (!isset($scores[$s])) {
              $scores[$s] = $s;
              $count++;
            }
          }
        }
      }
      // Return matching snippet and number of added words
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      return array("a.title ". ($not ? 'NOT ' : '') . db_ilike() . " '%' || ? || '%'" . ($not ? ' AND ' : ' OR ') . 'a.description ' . ($not ? 'NOT ' : '') . db_ilike() . " '%' || ? || '%'", $count);
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    }

    /**
     * Simplifies a string according to indexing rules.
     */
    private static function search_simplify($text) {
      // Decode entities to UTF-8
      $text = self::decode_entities($text);
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